The two main functions of the motherboard are providing power to the other components in the computer and allowing data to pass between different devices.
First main function:
The first function is providing power to the other components in the computer. The CPU, GPU, RAM, BIOS chip, hard drive, optical drive(s), fans, USB ports and connection ports all require electricity before they will work.
This electricity passes through a set of wires called traces that connect each component to the motherboard. Every motherboard has connectors for plugging in cords from external devices like monitors or speakers as well because those also need electricity before they will work properly.
Every cord that plugs into these connections are color coded for easy use by humans but it does not affect how fast or slow your PC works.
Usually the cords that go into the 24 pin power connector are black, red and grey wire colors which match up with a cord that goes to your wall outlet or UPS (uninterruptible power supply).
The only time you would need to change your power cord is if it gets unplugged accidently.
Second main function:
For the second functionality of providing data pathways between devices most computers have USB ports, microphone/audio jacks, ethernet connection ports, monitor/VGA connection ports and many more.
Many motherboards also have special features like on-board buttons for opening BIOS settings or overclocking options on the motherboard itself without needing 2nd party software.
A network card may be required to connect to certain types of networks whether wired or wireless and GPU cards can be added in for graphics if a motherboard does not have it pre-installed.
The main functions of a motherboard are to connect all the other components together and to supply power to those components. Most motherboards contain a variety of other functions as well but those are what make it possible to have a working PC.
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