Pneumatics technology play an important role in the performance of mechanical work. It also uses for the development of robotics solutions. The working of a pneumatic system is similar to that of hydraulic system but in pneumatic systems use pressurized air instead of hydraulic liquid. A system that utilizes pressurized air to control and transfer energy is called a Pneumatic System. These systems are widely used in various industries. Pneumatic pump uses compressed gas or air to create the force used to move liquids through a piping system. These pumps are usually powered by compressed inert gases or compressed air. A compressor located in the operating center is used for other pneumatic devices, including motors, cylinders and pumps.
The mode of working of pneumatic pumps is very similar to that of hydraulic pumps. Basically, pneumatic pumps use air in the same way that hydraulic pumps use fluids. Both are capable of generating extremely high levels of pressure that can generate surprisingly large amounts of force.
How does a Pneumatic Pump work?
The basic principle of the pneumatic pump is to use compressed air or gas to move the media. When pneumatic pumps are used for industrial applications, they include the use of compressed inert gases or compressed air.
These pumps use a dual piston system. One of these pistons has a much smaller diameter than the other. These pistons are separated by an airtight chamber filled with a liquid or compressed gas.
The compressed gas uses external pressure on the large diameter piston and then pressurizes the gas or liquid chamber in the intermediate chamber. The smaller the piston, the greater the amplified power, which transforms into powerful mechanical action.
Types of Pneumatic Pumps
Pneumatic pumps are commonly referred to as positive displacement pumps, which are dual actuators without a return spring and can be used as drivers for many compressed liquids or gases. There are different types of pneumatic pump. Here are some common types of pumps that are widely known:
1. Pneumatic Diaphragm Pumps:
This pump uses a plunger or piston mechanism to transfer media through a cylinder chamber. This mechanism is operated by electric, hydraulic, pneumatic or steam drive.
2. Pneumatic Liquid Pumps:
This is used to transfer fluid from one place to another.
- Hydraulic Cylinder Actuation
- Component flush
- lifting and Jacking
- Hydraulic power unit
- LPG reclaims
- Isostatic Pressing
- Controlled force, paper mills
- Gun turret leveling
- Fluid charging
- Flange spreaders
- Bolt Tensioning
- Cylinder Testing: DOT
- Brake Application
3. Pneumatic refrigeration pumps:
This pump system is used to replace the refrigerant, especially two-stage pumps.
Refrigeration exchange, recovery or recharge
- SF6 Reclaim
- Liquefied gas transfer
- Freon Reclaim
- Refrigerant reclaims
- Halon Reclaim
- Vehicle Air Conditioning Charging
- Supercritical extraction
- Refrigerant Charging
4. Pneumatic Test Pumps:
These pumps are designed to evaluate the performance of a particular pneumatic pump system.
- Pressure instrument calibration
- Food and Beverage
- Pressure instrument Maintenance
- Water and wastewater
- Oil and Gas
- Power Generation
Components of Pneumatic System
Following are the major components of a pneumatic system:
1) Check valves
These are one-way valves in which the pipe is installed, which connects the compressor to the buffer tank. They allow compressed air to collect in the buffer tanks, but prevent it from going backwards into the compressor tank.
It is a mechanical device that increases air pressure by reducing its volume. It is a pump powered by gas or electricity. This compresses the air to a higher PSI (pounds per square inch). Compressors attach a tank to store air before releasing it into the pneumatic path.
3) Controllers and measurements
These are devices that are attached to the compressor or compressor tank. To release air in the pneumatic path, the regulator is electrically or mechanically induced. Sizes are electric or mechanical measuring instruments. They allow the computer system or operator to control and check the PSI of the air inside the compressor.
4) Accumulator or buffer tank
Buffer tanks are secondary storage units for compressed air coming from the compressor. They are storing high-PSI compressed air for pneumatic actuators. These tanks help to prevent irregular ventilation in the actuators, thus allowing the compressor cycle to increase its shutdown time. They allow the compressor to be at the correct distance from the actuators in the programs.
5) Feed lines:
These lines move compressed air through a pneumatic system. They have installed large diameter hoses to handle the PSI. These large tubes allow compressed air to travel faster, which eliminates airflow backups.
These are the components of a hard-working pneumatic system. Many types of actuators are powered by compressed air. Most often used cylinder and fall. As air is forced into the chamber the compressed air is released into the cylinder to move the piston forward.
Applications Pneumatic System
- Power press and pneumatic press
- Medical and dentistry composition pumps
- Air brakes of automobile & trains
- Anti-aircraft weapon
- Auto motional of assembly line like bottling, packaging, automobile industry
- Air engine 3. Pneumatic drills
- Pneumatic vehicle cleaning
- Cotton mills
- Paper mills
- Forge shops
- Metal forming
- Pneumatic launchers
- Pressure regulator
- Vacuum pump